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Kofi Annan: A Stellar Legacy Against All Odds


The following is a “think piece” on the legacy of Mr. Kofi Annan, the seventh. Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN). The piece reflects my personal thoughts primarily on Mr. Annan’s work in the fields of disarmament and peacekeeping with general commentary on his wider body of work. Having spent a significant part of my own UN career in Disarmament and Peacekeeping, I welcome this opportunity to share my observations on Mr. Annan’s work in these areas.

The United Nations describes the role of Secretary-General “as equal parts diplomat and advocate, civil servant and CEO.” It goes on to state that the Secretary-General “is a symbol of United Nations ideals and a spokesman for the interests of the world’s peoples, in particular the poor and vulnerable among them.”1 Many diplomatic analysts will agree that the role is also a thankless one as no Secretary-General is immune from the criticisms that inevitably come with a job that calls for one to sometimes accomplish the impossible. Mr. Annan’s challenges included the genocides in Rwanda and Srebrenica (Bosnia), reform of the UN and its Security Council, to name a few. I will argue, however, that Mr. Annan’s body of work and legacy at the United Nations clearly ensure his place among the most accomplished Secretaries-General of the post-Cold War era.

Here is the link to continue reading: Kofi Annan



Disarmament during Ethnic and Religious War: The United Nations Perspective


It gives me great pleasure to be here this morning to speak to you about the work of the United Nations, in particular, that of the United Nations Office on Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) and its endeavors to address all sources of armed conflict from the perspective of disarmament.

Thank you to the International Center for Ethnic and Religious  Mediation (ICERM) for organizing this important conference. It comes as we mark the 70th anniversary of the United Nations which has been at the forefront of peacebuilding and conflict prevention efforts throughout the world for seven decades. We, therefore, applaud the tireless work of civil society organizations such as yours to develop alternative methods of preventing and resolving armed conflict and educating people about the dangers of interethnic and interreligious conflict.

Civil society organizations have made major contributions to the field of disarmament as well, and the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs is particularly grateful for their work in this regard.

As a veteran of six United Nations peacekeeping missions, I have witnessed and know all too well, the long-lasting societal, environmental, and economic damage that armed conflicts have caused in many parts of the globe. As we all know, such conflicts have several root causes, religion and ethnicity being only two of them. Conflicts can also be triggered by a number of other causes that must be addressed with appropriate measures that directly address specific root causes, including those of religious and ethnic origin.

My colleagues in the Department of Political Affairs, in particular, those in the Mediation Support Unit, have a mandate to find appropriate measures to address the root causes of conflict of all kinds and have deployed a wide range of resources in many areas of conflict with great efficacy. These efforts, while very effective in some cases, are by themselves insufficient to fully address armed conflicts of all kinds. To effectively deal with armed conflict including addressing their root causes and their devastating aftermaths, the UN draws on a wide range of expertise.

In this regard, the various departments within the United Nations system collaborate to bring their specialized resources and manpower to bear on the problem of armed conflict. These departments include the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, the Department of Political Affairs, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), the Department of Field Service (DFS) and many others.

This brings me to the work of the Office for Disarmament Affairs and its role in the prevention and resolution of armed conflict. Our role in what is essentially a collaborative effort, is to reduce the availability of arms and ammunition that fuel conflict. The topic of this panel discussion: “Disarmament during Ethnic and Religious War” seems to suggest that there might be a special approach to disarmament in the context of religious and ethnic conflict. Let me be clear at the outset: the UN Office for Disarmament Affairs does not distinguish between the various kinds of armed conflict and adopts a uniform approach in carrying out its disarmament mandate. Through disarmament, we hope to reduce the availability of all types of weapons that currently fuel religious, ethnic, and other conflicts throughout the world.

Disarmament, in the context of all conflicts, be they ethnic, religious, or otherwise involves the collection, documentation, control and disposal of small arms, ammunition, explosives and light and heavy weapons from combatants. The objective is to reduce and ultimately eliminate the unregulated availability of weapons and thereby lower the chances for furthering conflict of any kind.

Our Office works to support and promote arms control agreements as these agreements have played crucial roles in defusing conflicts throughout the history of disarmament. They have acted as confidence-building measures, providing both an avenue and an opportunity for bringing opposing forces to the negotiation table.

The Arms Trade Treaty and the Programme of Action, for example, are two very important tools that the international community can deploy as safeguards against the illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation and misuse of conventional weapons that are, so often, utilised to further ethnic, religious, and other conflicts.

The ATT recently adopted by the UN General Assembly aims to establish the highest possible common international standards for regulating the international trade in conventional arms, and to prevent and eradicate the illicit trade in conventional arms and their diversion. The hope is that with the increased regulation of the arms trade a greater measure of peace in areas of conflict will be realized.

As the Secretary-General has said most recently, “the Arms Trade Treaty offers the promise of a more peaceful world and eliminate a glaring moral gap in international law.

Apart from its role in supporting the adoption of the Arms Trade Treaty, The UN Office for Disarmament Affairs oversees the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. It is an important United Nations supported initiative established in the 1990s to reduce the availability of small arms and light weapons by promoting various arms control regimes in participating countries.

The UN Security Council also plays an instrumental role in disarmament with a view to eliminating ethnic, religious, and other conflicts. In August 2014, the Security Council adopted a resolution on threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts[1], with a specific reference to the threat posed by foreign terrorist fighters. Significantly, the Council reaffirmed its decision that States should prevent the direct or indirect supply, sale, or transfer of arms to Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), Al Nusrah Front (ANF) and all individuals, groups, undertakings, and entities associated with Al-Qaida.

To conclude, I have sought to throw some light on the work of the UN Office for Disarmament Affairs and the critical role of disarmament in resolving ethnic, religious, and other conflicts. Disarmament, as you may have gathered by now, is, only part of the equation. Our work at the United Nations to end ethnic, religious, and other forms of conflict is a collective effort of many parts of the UN system. It is only by harnessing the specialized expertise of various sectors of the UN system that we are best able to address the root causes of religious, ethnic, and other conflicts in an effective manner.

* Presentation at the Second International Conference on Ethnic and Religious Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding, International Center for Ethno-Religious Mediation (ICERM), Yonkers, New York, 11 November 2015.

Presentation to Drew University Alumni Association 2006 Reunion – 3 June 2006



Curtis J.  Raynold

Political Affairs Officer

Department for Disarmament Affairs

United Nations

                       Managing Weapons of Mass Destruction in the

Contemporary World 

The 9/11 debacle forced the international community to examine more closely crucial developments in the geo-political environment at that time and to face the fact that weapons of mass destruction were acquiring a renewed and dangerous attraction, not only for certain nation states, but also for terrorists and other non-state actors. The latter development called for a new and comprehensive approach to addressing this threat in the contexts of disarmament and non-proliferation, as well as the prevention of terrorism. In April 2004, the international community took the initiative in addressing the growing concern that terrorist could acquire weapons of mass destruction through the adoption of Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004).

Whether or not these threats actually materialize, the international community must acknowledge that the possibility of a nuclear or radiological weapon being detonated in a major city or of sarin and other lethal toxic agents being released into public transportation systems or covertly dispersed in population centers is more acute today than it was ten years ago. Existing multilateral agreements and domestic efforts, while achieving success in some areas, have not been able to effectively and comprehensively address the evolving threat or dispel growing concern about the potential acquisition and use of such weapons of mass destruction.  Security Council Resolution 1540 attempts to address some of these concerns.  The following panel member will give a brief insight into this new approach to the proliferation of WMD and the concomitant threat of terrorism.

Political Affairs Officer, Curtis Raynold, was assigned to the United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs in July 2004.  He joined the U.N. in June 1985, through the U.N. administered National Competitive Examination in Economics. Mr. Raynold served with the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) from 1985 to 2004 and in that capacity, traveled extensively in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe on fact-finding and advisory missions aimed at facilitating U.N. member States’ implementation of the international drug control treaties. In 1999, he was posted to United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) immediately following the negotiated cease-fire between NATO and Yugoslavia and the subsequent adoption by the U.N. Security Council of Resolution 1244 in June of that year.

During his two and a half-year stint in Kosovo as International Municipal Administrator of the Municipality of Novo Brdo in north-eastern Kosovo, Mr. Raynold played an instrumental role in the implementation of Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999) which mandated the U.N. Secretary-General to establish an interim civilian administration in the war-ravaged province. He distinguished himself there by establishing, in Novo Brdo, the first multi-ethnic municipal assembly in Kosovo thus facilitating the U.N.’s mandate to ensure progressively substantial autonomy for the province. Mr. Raynold had earlier served on U.N. peace-keeping and electoral assistance missions in the Central African Republic, Liberia, Namibia and South Africa.

Prior to the U.N., Mr. Raynold worked with the St. Lucia Ministry of Finance from 1978 to 1980 and the Diplomatic Service from 1980 to 1985 which included assignments on St. Lucia’s delegation to the 37th and 38th Sessions of the U.N. General Assembly in 1982 and 1983.

Mr. Raynold graduated with a B.A. in Economics and Law from the University of the West Indies (UWI) in 1978.  Under a scholarship from the German Foundation for International Development, he pursued graduate studies in International Relations at the Institute of International Relations of UWI in Trinidad & Tobago. There, Mr. Raynold conducted graduate research for his thesis entitled “Caribbean Disintegration: The Caribbean Regional Movement from 1965 to 1980”.  He earned a Master’s degree in Government  at Harvard University, specializing in International Political Economy.


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